Cooperative teach as a team in learning proccess
By : Niam gema saputra
Social aspect is an important in learning process, and we can to apply and teach it when we use cooperative learning.
Social interdependence theory underlies some of the most widely used cooperative learning procedures (Johnson & Johnson 2002). Social interdependence theory has been validated by hundreds of research studies (Johnson & Johnson 1974, 1989, 2005), a cooperative learning which content about as a team in all proceess. Practical procedures have been operationalized from social interdependence theory at the classroom (i.e., the teacher’s role in structuring cooperative learning) and school (i.e., leading the cooperative school) levels (Johnson & Johnson 1999, 1994). This relationship among theory, research, and practice makes cooperative learning so unique in use.
The crucial importance of peer group experience for the development of children’s co-operative skills, as well as for their social and moral development in general, has long been emphasized by prominent developmental theorist (Dewey 1900; Piaget 1932/1965; Sulivan 1953;Vygotsky 1978; Youniss 1980). Consistent with the educational theories of both Piaget and Vygotsky, young children benefit socially and morally from their interactions with peers (Piaget 1932/1965; Vygotsky 1978).
Cooperative learning teach how student can to debate,and discussion as process to giving knowledge to the other,example for between a group with the other group.
When cooperative groups function well, it can make children learn from one another, and come to like and respect one another, yet at the same time they learn to themselves and to explain the reason for their opinions. All group members deepen their understanding of what it means to collaborate, negotiate, and compromise to achieve fairness for everyone. (Watson in Robbien Gillies & Adrian Ashman)
Cooperative learning not anly a technique of teaching to increase students achievement but also form a way to create cheerful, the environment that pro-social in classroom.
The studies and reviews by Johnson et al. (1983), Johnson and Johnson (1985), Slavin (1989) and Sharan (1980) confirm co-operative learning as an effective teaching strategy that can be used to enhance achievement and socialization among students and contribute to improved attitudes towards learning and working with others, including developing a better understanding of children from diverse cultural backgrounds. However, while co-operative learning gained acceptance as a strategy for promoting
positive academic, social and attitudinal outcomes, researchers at the time were still debating how the different methods influenced academic achievement.
Co-operative learning activities can provide young children with opportunities to develop not only their social and emotional skills, but also responsibility for their social environment, and to feel a personal commitment to the rules that are necessary for positive social relationships.
Positive social relationships among students and between students and faculty, the lower the absenteeism and dropout rates and the greater the commitment to group goals, feelings of personal responsibility to the group, willingness to take on difficult
tasks, motivation and persistence in working toward goal achievement, satisfaction and morale, willingness to endure pain and frustration on behalf of the group, willingness to defend the group against external criticism or attack, willingness to listen to and be influenced by colleagues, commitment to each other’s professional growth and success, and productivity (Johnson & Johnson 2006).
In their studies on the long-term implementation of cooperative teams, Lew and Mesch (Lew et al. 1986a, b; Mesch et al. 1986, 1993) found that the combination of positive goal interdependence, a contingency for high performance by all group members, and a social skills contingency, promoted the highest achievement and productivity. Thus, the more socially skillful participants are, the more social skills are taught and rewarded, and the more individual feedback participants receive on their use of the skills, the higher tends to be the achievement and productivity in cooperative groups. Putnam et al. (1989) demonstrated that, when participants were taught social skills, observed, and given individual feedback as to how frequently they engaged in the skills, their relationships became more positive.
For example, Vaughan (1996) introduced co-operative learning into a classroom environment characterized by disrespect, unfairness and intolerance between 5- to 7-year-old boys and girls. She found that co-operative learning resulted in more collaboration, less competitive behaviour, improved communication skills, better tolerance and respect for others, improved self-esteem, and a more positive and productive classroom in general. However, such positive outcomes are not a certainty. Howes and Ritchie (2002) found that for successful co-operative learning, the classroom needed to be a safe place for all students, the children needed to possess the social skills required by the activity, and the children needed to have a collaborative and trusting relationship with the teacher. Similar conclusions were reached by Rheta Devries and her colleagues from their extensive research on children in constructivist preschools (see Devries and Zan 1994). That is, young children are capable of effective cooperation if the teacher can to drive them and mix them, and has a positive and personal relationship with students. Class will so fun and I sure student can enjoy the procees.
Using cooperative leaning to teach in the classroom is selection. It prepare ideal solution about give occasion problem to interact as cooperative and not shallow for the students from different etnic. Methods of cooperative learning delete differencies from the different etnic background to increase relationship. Work together is pressed through appreciation and tasks in classroom.
All of these indicate that the social aspect as similarity in class as team can to giving more learning about respect,and attention to other.
Gillies RM and Adrian F.Ashman. Cooperative Learning : The Social and Intellectual Outcomes of learning in groups.New York.
Gillies RM and Adrian F.Ashman. The taecher’s role in implementing Cooperative Leraning in the classroom..New York.
Slavin, Robert.E. 2005. Cooperative Learning : Teori, Riset, dan Praktik (terjemahan).Bandung : Nusa Media